The millimeter wave (mmWave) part of the electromagnetic spectrum is at the high end of the microwave region, which spans ~300 MHz to 300 GHz, and is usually taken to mean frequencies from ~30 GHz to 300 GHz and wavelengths in the range of 1mm to 1cm (Table 1). This dramatically increases available bandwidth, thus expanding achievable data rates, which makes these frequencies extremely interesting to teams around the world working on fifth generation (5G) communications.
One of the questions we get asked regularly is:
‘why not just integrate a filter in the board stack?’
Our answer to this comes in two parts: First there are manufacturing tolerances to consider, and second there is size.
Today, medical devices incorporate an increasing amount of technology. Mobile capabilities and complicated software continue to change the way devices are designed. For a medical device development company, when applying the business lens, balancing value and reliability is a constant consideration. Patient safety is paramount; however, making effective cost decisions becomes increasingly complex when other factors are on the line.
With the promised delivery date of 5G wireless communication fast approaching, the world is waiting to see if this next-generation network will hit its ambitious goals of 10 Gbps peak data rates, less than 1 ms latency, 10 times greater energy efficiency, and more. In past decades, each generation of mobile systems – from 1G analog systems to 2G digital standards to 3G mobile broadband capabilities to 4G LTE and LTE-Advanced networks – has overcome a unique set of challenges. Leaps in technology are necessary to enable these advancements in performance.
We look forward to seeing you in Boston at this year’s International Microwave Symposium. We will be there to discuss our RF and Microwave solutions, including:
As technology advances in the medical device space, electronics design is constantly adapting to meet industry needs. Since implantable medical devices must be embedded into the body, one of the main goals is to reduce physiological burden by minimizing the need for invasive surgeries. To achieve these goals, capacitors are just one of the many components that need to meet the demands of innovation, which today most commonly means the super-miniaturization of electronic circuits and advancements in capacitor materials and design.
From Ultrasound to Radars, in a phased array system some of the most important design considerations are the number of elements and the element spacing since both drive cost and performance. In traditional arrays an inter element spacing of less than half the wavelength (<λ/2) is required to mitigate grating lobes.
Today, with the continued drive for more technical features in conventional cars and the increasing electrification of the drive train, the challenges facing electronics designers are ever increasing. Alongside a drive to lower costs and smaller form factors, MLCC’s are being used in ever harsher applications and in ever increasing numbers. This is driving board population density upwards and with it concerns for reliability and particularly the likelihood of mechanical cracking. Thus electronic designers are now demanding flexibility that exceeds the current Automotive Electronic Council bend test specification (AEC-Q200 Rev D June 1, 2010).
In our last article about electric vehicles (EV), we talked about using DC link capacitors as an intermediary buffer in power converters. Today’s topic covers another useful power module component – the snubber capacitor. Snubbers are energy-absorbing circuits used to protect electronics from voltage spikes and transients caused by turning a switch from the On to Off state. Opening a switch intrinsically induces a high voltage across the device, and the snubber provides an alternate flow path for the excess energy to be absorbed by the snubber capacitor and dissipated by a resister or other load.
In electric vehicle (EV) applications, filter capacitors are a special type of component commonly used as input and output capacitors. Also known as noise suppression or electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, these particular capacitors act to remove noise and other unwanted signals on the line. On the high voltage alternating current (AC) side of a system, the capacitors often provide EMI filtering, whereas on the direct current (DC) side of a subsystem, they serve to smooth ripple components of the AC and filter out noise.