Contextualizing Q Factor

Posted by Peter Matthews on Nov 29, 2023 8:30:00 AM

Quality factor, or Q factor, is a common shorthand figure of merit (FOM) for RF filters. It’s typically expressed as the ratio of stored versus lost energy per oscillation cycle. Steepness of skirts, selectivity, and insertion loss are all specifications that can be described in terms of Q factor. While this FOM feels ubiquitous in RF, truly understanding how Q factor is determined and how it relates to other specifications is a complex endeavor because it’s contextual. 

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Topics: RF and Microwave

Gain Equalizer Basics

Posted by Peter Matthews on Nov 15, 2023 8:09:00 AM

Passive gain equalizers are designed to rectify or flatten the frequency response of an RF amplifier. RF amplifiers are known to cause a non-uniform gain over the operational bandwidth of a device, which results in distortion and other unwanted effects. Equalizers generate a counter-gain profile to offset that uneven response. Pairing equalizers and amplifiers is critical in applications like broadband systems where consistent performance over a wide frequency range enhances signal fidelity and system performance.

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Topics: RF and Microwave

Duplex, Duplexer, Diplexer?

Posted by Peter Matthews on Jul 5, 2023 6:00:00 AM

One of the things all technical disciplines excel at is creating terminology that can trip up those who are not accustomed to speaking the language every day. Take the title of this article for example. These three words sound similar and are definitely inter-related, but they are not inter-changeable.

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Topics: RF and Microwave

Anatomy of and Stencil Design Recommendations for Our DLI Brand Filters

Posted by Brook Sandy on Apr 26, 2023 6:45:00 AM

The Knowles Precision Devices DLI brand of technologies are designed to address the complex challenges of implementing high-performance mmWave filters across the widest range of specifications. Our Microwave Product Catalog covers how to select the best catalog or custom components for your application needs, while our new Microwave Products Guide provides valuable information and recommendations for how to work with our DLI brand microwave products once you have the components in hand.

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Topics: RF and Microwave, Filtering

RF Filter Terminology and Specifications

Posted by Peter Matthews on Apr 19, 2023 9:15:00 AM

To choose the right filter for your application, you'll need to evaluate filter type, identify the specific filter technology that best suits your application, and ensure the filter meets your required specifications. This post is designed to serve as a quick reference on the common terms that are used to discuss filter type, technology, and specifications.

To start, there are four key Filter behaviors that sort them into types: Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass, and Band Stop.

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Topics: RF and Microwave

Achieve the Best Performance for Your Thin Film RF Devices

Posted by Peter Matthews on Mar 29, 2023 9:01:41 AM

As the demand for faster communications across consumer and commercial devices continues to increase, operating frequencies of RF devices are being pushed higher and higher. This creates a number of challenges for RF device designers, as filter size must be reduced to compensate for smaller device sizes and shorter wavelengths while also maintaining high levels of performance. While surface mount technology (SMT), and in particular microstrip implementations, are an excellent option to meet these demands, it is important to note that not every SMT microstrip filter is created equal. There are a variety of choices to discuss with your filter supplier, such as substrate type, plating technology, and topology that can dramatically reduce the size and increase the performance of an SMT microstrip filter. One particular choice that Knowles Precision Devices has guided customers through for decades is the decision to use thin film for these filters.

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Topics: RF and Microwave, Filtering, Build to Print

Filter Shape Factor and Selectivity

Posted by Peter Matthews on Mar 1, 2023 7:00:00 AM

An Ideal Filter

The Ideal Filter would have unit gain (0dB) in its pass band and a gain of zero (-infinity dB) in its stop band. Between pass band and stop band there would be no indecision and would transition from 0dB to -infinity dB asymptotically. It would pass only the required frequencies without adding or subtracting anything from the signal and like a very discrete and fastidious butler we would not see it - just its perfect management of the frequencies in its care.

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Topics: RF and Microwave

Understanding and Mitigating Multipaction

Posted by Peter Matthews on Feb 8, 2023 8:45:00 AM

When developing mission-critical space applications such as low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites or equipment designed for Mars missions, there are special considerations you must make if you will be operating your RF circuits in a vacuum. This is because when pressure in the vacuum is below 10-2 Torr, a potentially catastrophic phenomenon in RF circuits called multipaction is possible.

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Topics: RF and Microwave

What is X2Y and Why Would I Use It?

Posted by Jordan Yates on Jan 25, 2023 8:45:00 AM

X2Y® technology, which was originally developed by X2Y Attenuators, LLC, is based on a proprietary electrode arrangement embedded in passive components that can be manufactured using a variety of dielectrics. Using this innovative technology, Knowles Precision Devices manufactures high-performance multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) that we then use to create a variety of off-the-shelf and custom bypass and noise decoupling capacitors and electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters. Let’s look at how building these components with X2Y is different than using a traditional ceramic MLCC and the resulting benefits.

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Topics: RF and Microwave, Filtering

The Facts About Microstrip Filters

Posted by Peter Matthews on Jan 4, 2023 8:45:00 AM

Since our acquisition of Integrated Microwave Corporation (IMC) in 2020, we have extended our range of RF and microwave filtering solutions to include a wide variety of ceramic coaxial resonators, lumped element filters, and cavity filters from the VHF to the Ka band. During this time, we’ve also continued to innovate on and expand our product offering for one of our most popular filter types – the microstrip filter.  

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Topics: RF and Microwave, Filtering

Insights Into Precision Passive Devices

Knowles Precision Devices is a premier global source for Capacitors, RF Filters, EMI Filters, Resonators, non-magnetic components and advanced dielectric materials. An umbrella for the brands of Compex, DLI, Johanson MFG, Novacap, Syfer and Voltronics, Knowles Precision Devices serves a variety of markets including military, aerospace/avionics, medical equipment, implantable devices, EMI and connector filtering, oil exploration, instrumentation, industrial electronics, automotive, telecoms and data networks.

This Blog will provide insights into:

  • Filters for 5G and mmWave
  • Capacitors for High Voltage
  • Capacitors for High Reliability

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